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Frequently Asked Questions

The concept of nerve stimulation — specifically, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) — to treat epilepsy and depression is well-known. Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (TNS) is a new, non-invasive nerve stimulation technique developed by NeuroSigma for the treatment of epilepsy, depression, and ADHD. NeuroSigma has created this information page of frequently asked questions to help you understand this new treatment.

If you want to find out more about the Monarch System, contact us and a NeuroSigma representative will respond.

What does eTNS mean?

It's an abbreviation for external Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation.

What is the Monarch eTNS System?

The Monarch system is a non-invasive therapy approved in the European Union for the adjunctive treatment of ADHD, epilepsy and depression in patients ages 7 and older.

How does it work?

A small electric patch is applied to the forehead just above the eyebrows. Lead wires connect the patches to a hand-held device that can be fastened to a belt, carried in a pocket, or placed beside your bed. Mild electrical currents then stimulate the trigeminal nerve. Patients typically report a tingling sensation that does not interfere with daily activities or sleep.

When does the treatment occur?

Patients use eTNS at their convenience and can administer the treatments at home. Most choose to have the stimulation therapy occur at night and during sleep.

Who are good candidates?

Patients may try eTNS if they have been diagnosed with ADHD, Epilepsy or Depression. Typically, patients have tried at least two drug therapies before considering eTNS.

Where was the treatment developed?

eTNS was invented by a team of doctors and researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). UCLA physicians were involved in some of the original studies of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for the treatment of epilepsy, and began to develop eTNS as a non-invasive alternative to VNS. eTNS has now been used for a decade in clinical studies at UCLA. NeuroSigma is making this treatment available to patients throughout the European Union and Canada.

Where can I read peer-reviewed papers that have been published in scientific journals?

Please visit NeuroSigma's publications page:

How do you obtain it?

Fill out the contact form and a NeuroSigma representative will be in touch soon.

Is the Monarch eTNS System covered by insurance?

No, at this time the Monarch is not covered by insurance, please check back regularly for updates on reimbursement.

How much does the Monarch eTNS System cost?

The Monarch eTNS System can be purchased directly from NeuroSigma. The starter kit is €800 and includes everything a patient needs to begin therapy and a 4-week supply of electric patches. Additional patches can be purchased from NeuroSigma for €5.

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